An EIA report contains predictions about the environmental impacts of proposals and recommendations for their mitigation and management. The report is essentially a discretionary planning document. Usually, a separate project approval sets the terms and conditions with which the proponent must comply.
An environmental management plan (EMP), also referred to as an impact management plan, is usually prepared as part of EIA reporting. It translates recommended mitigation and monitoring measures into specific actions that will be carried out by the proponent. Depending upon particular requirements, the plan may be included in, or appended to, the EIA report or may be a separate document. The EMP will need to be adjusted to the terms and conditions specified in any project approval. It will then form the basis for impact management during project construction and operation.
The main components of an EMP are described in the table below, which reflects practice at the World Bank. Although there is no standard format, the EMP should contain the following:
- summary of the potential impacts of the proposal;
- description of the recommended mitigation measures;
- statement of their compliance with relevant standards;
- allocation of resources and responsibilities for plan implementation;
- schedule of the actions to be taken;
- programme for surveillance, monitoring and auditing; and
- contingency plan when impacts are greater than expected.
|EMP Component||How to address||Source: World Bank, 1999|
|Summary of impacts||The predicted adverse environmental and social impacts for which mitigation is required should be identified and briefly summarised. Cross referencing to the EA report or other documentation is recommended.|
|Description of mitigation measures||Each mitigation measure should be briefly described with reference to the impact to which it relates and the conditions under which it is required (for example, continuously or in the event of contingencies). These should be accompanied by, or referenced to, project design and operating procedures which elaborate on the technical aspects of implementing the various measures.|
|Description of monitoring programme||The monitoring program should clearly indicate the linkages between impacts identified in the EIA report, measurement indicators, detection limits (where appropriate), and definition of thresholds that will signal the need for corrective actions.|
|Institutional arrangements||Responsibilities for mitigation and monitoring should be clearly defined, including arrangements for co-ordination between the various actors responsible for mitigation.|
|Implementation schedule and reporting procedures||The timing, frequency and duration of mitigation measure should be specified in an implementation schedule, showing links with overall project implementation. Procedures to provide information on the progress and results of mitigation and monitoring measures should also be clearly specified.|
|Cost estimates and sources of funds||These should be specified for both the initial investment and recurring expenses for implementing all measures contained in the EMP, integrated into the total project costs, and factored into loan negotiations.|
The EMP should contain commitments that are binding on the proponent. It can be translated into project documentation and provide the basis for a legal contract that sets out the responsibilities of the proponent. In turn, the proponent can use the EMP to establish environmental performance standards and requirements for those carrying out the works or providing supplies. An EMP can also be used to prepare an environmental management system for the operational phase of the project.